Laparoscopic Assisted Cystotomy
A cystotomy is almost always performed in order to remove stones from the urinary bladder. Both dogs and cats can develop bladder stones and the cause is believed to be due to a number of factors. The two most common factors leading to stone formation have been shown to be genetics and dietary factors. While cystotomies are routinely performed in veterinary medicine, the use of a cystoscope allows for much better visualization. Improved visualization can help ensure that all of the stones have been removed (sometimes there's lots of little ones!), as well as allow a much more detailed view of the inside of the bladder for other abnormalities (eg: defects, cancer).
The use of the cystoscope allows for a smaller incision leading to faster recovery times and more comfort for the patient.
X-ray showing numerous bladder stones (white arrow). These can be quite uncomfortable for the animal and have likely been building up for some time.
Bladder stones removed from a dog.
Possible Signs of Bladder Disease
Blood in urine
Increased frequency of urination
Poor urine stream
Licking at back end/genital area (especially in male cats)